Affidavit of Bankruptcy: A long form signed under oath by a party (usually a defendant in criminal proceedings) attesting that they are unable to pay a private lawyer and/or costs. Negligence/Comparative Fault: A system that allows one party to compensate for some of the damages caused by the negligence of another party, even if the original person was also partially negligent and responsible for the violation. Not all states follow this system. Accompanying or co-accused cases: More than one person arrested for the same criminal incident. Sentence: Guilty verdict against an accused. Tags: Crime, Criminal Justice, Law, Military, Terminology Guide, Victim Crime A crime is a serious crime that is usually punishable by imprisonment or, in some cases, death. Crimes are considered more serious than misdemeanors. Murder, extortion and kidnapping are some examples of crimes. Crimes are classified as 1st degree, 2nd degree, 3rd degree or capital crimes. Self-defence: Claiming that an otherwise criminal act was legally justified because it was necessary to protect a person or property from the threat or act of another.

Case Control: System for tracking deadlines and hearing dates for litigation and non-litigation. Diversion: The process of removing certain minor criminal, trafficked or minor cases from the entire trial, provided that the defendant undergoes some kind of rehabilitation or pays damages. Plea The first plea of a defendant, the statement of the defendant in public court that he is guilty or not guilty. Respondent`s response to allegations made in the indictment or in the information. Civil law: the branch of law that refers to actions outside criminal practice, which relate to the rights and obligations of contractual, tortious, etc.; also refers to civil law as opposed to common law. Disposition: An agreement between lawyers on both sides of the civil or criminal proceedings on an aspect of the case, for example: the extension of the deadline for reply, the postponement of the hearing date or the admission of certain facts to the trial. Small Jury: An ordinary or first instance jury composed of 6 to 12 people who hear civil or criminal cases. Note: A note is a systematic commentary on the law.

Cases, laws and regulations are often commented. An annotation can provide the researcher with historical data, case excerpts, cross-references, or citations from legal journal articles. Defence of property: An affirmative defence in criminal law or tort law in which force was used to protect one`s property. Impeachment: A criminal case against a public servant. Beyond a reasonable doubt: The standard in a criminal case that requires the jury to be satisfied with moral certainty that every element of a crime has been proven by the prosecution to convict an accused. Bankruptcy: A formal condition of an insolvent person who is declared bankrupt under the law. The legal effect is to divert most of the debtor`s assets and debts to the administration of a third party, sometimes called a “receiver”, to whom unpaid debts are paid on a pro rata basis. Bankruptcy obliges the debtor to a legal period during which his commercial and financial affairs are managed under the strict supervision of the trustee. Bankruptcy usually involves the elimination of several special legal rights, such as: the right to sit on a board of directors or, for certain professions that are part of judicial systems, to practice, such as lawyers or judges.

Court-appointed lawyer: A lawyer appointed by the court to represent a defendant, usually on criminal charges and without the defendant having to pay to be represented. Link on: An act by which a court or judge requires a person to make an acknowledgment or release on bail in order to appear for prosecution or to participate as a witness. If the bailiff in a criminal case finds probable reason to believe that the defendant has committed a crime, the officer will bind the defendant, usually by setting a bond for the defendant`s appearance in court. Automobile defect insurance system: Refers to a system in which the party responsible for an accident is responsible for all damages. Aggravated: (offence, e.g., grievous bodily harm, serious bodily harm): In criminal proceedings, a condition that makes a crime more serious and exposes the offender to a heavier penalty. Example: Using a lethal weapon or wearing clothing that hides one`s identity when committing an attack is a serious attack, as opposed to a simple attack. Also in civil cases and actions or things that aggravate an already existing state. Grand Jury: A jury of up to 18 and at least 15 people, including at least 12 matches, may be returned. The use of grand jury varies across the country. In some states, it is mandatory for all criminal charges. In others, there is no grand jury system at all.

Acceptance: act of voluntary receipt of something or voluntary consent under certain conditions; implies the right to rejection. Tolerance: An act or inaction that legally binds a person even if it was not intended as such. For example, an act that is not intended to be a direct acceptance of a contract will nevertheless be considered as such, since it implies acceptance of the terms of the contract. For example, if I display a fruit basket in a market and you come by to inspect an apple and bite it, you have complied with the contract to buy that apple. Tolerance also refers to allowing too much time to elapse since you became aware of one event, which may have allowed you to have recourse against another, meaning that you are waiving your rights to this legal proceeding. Trial: Judicial review of matters between parties to a lawsuit. In criminal proceedings, the act would take place between the State and the accused. Admissible evidence: Relevant evidence that can be presented legally and correctly in civil or criminal proceedings.

Allodial: A type of land ownership that is unrestricted, direct and absolute. This is the opposite of the feudal system and does not presuppose any obligation to another (i.e. a master). Change of location: Transfer of a criminal complaint or proceeding to another location for hearing. Burden of proof: A rule of proof that leads a person to prove a particular case, otherwise the opposite will be assumed by the court. For example, in criminal proceedings, the prosecution has the burden of proof of the guilt of the accused because innocence is suspected. Court of Justice: Organ of government to which the administration of justice is delegated. Own recognition: Sometimes called personal recognition. A person who promises to appear in court to face criminal charges can sometimes be released from prison without having to pay bail. It is said that this person will be released on his own recognition. Cause: A lawsuit, litigation, or lawsuit.

Any matter, civil or criminal matter that is heard or contested in court. Settlement Agreement: In a civil case, the document that sets out the terms of an amicable compromise. Conspiracy: An agreement between two or more persons to commit a crime. Those who form the conspiracy are called conspirators. Perjury: The crime of making a false affidavit. Defendant: In civil proceedings, the accused person. In criminal proceedings, the person accused of the crime. Admission: Recognition of a person`s involvement in criminal and/or harmful behaviour.

Common Law: Judicial Law. Law that exists and applies to a group based on historical precedents developed over hundreds of years. Because it is not written by elected politicians, but by judges, it is also called an “unwritten” law. Judges seek these principles when hearing a case and apply precedents to the facts in rendering a judgment. Common law is often compared to civil law systems that require all laws to be written in a written code or collection. The common law has been called “the common sense of community crystallized and formulated by our ancestors.” The law of fairness evolved according to the common law to compensate for the rigid interpretations that medieval English judges gave to the common law. Self-incrimination: The constitutional right of people to refuse to testify against themselves who might sue them. This right is guaranteed by the Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution. The affirmation of the right is often referred to as “taking the fifth.” Beyond a reasonable doubt The burden of proof that the Public Prosecutor`s Office must bear in criminal proceedings in order to obtain a guilty verdict. The jury must be satisfied that the accused unequivocally committed all elements of the crime before rendering a guilty verdict. Immunity granted by the court, which ensures that a person is not prosecuted if he presents criminal evidence. Jury Indictment: Instructions from the judge to the jury on the law applicable in a case and definitions of relevant legal terms.

These instructions can be complex and are often crucial for jury discussions. Jurisprudence: The study of the law and the structure of the legal system. Arrest: Placing a person in detention under the law to charge him or her with a crime. An arrest is appropriate if an officer making the arrest is likely to have reason to believe that the inmate has engaged in criminal conduct; or on the basis of an arrest warrant issued by a judge or magistrate.