Uncategorized November 30, 2022
“Skeleton.” Abbreviations.com. STANDS4 LLC, 2022. Web. November 30, 2022. . The term skeleton comes from the ancient Greek σκελετός (skeleton) “desiccated”.  Sceleton is an archaic form of the word.  There are 206 bones in the adult human skeleton, although this number depends on whether the pelvic bones (the hip bones on each side) are counted as one or three bones on each side (ilium, ischium and pubis), whether the tailbone or tailbone is counted as one or four separate bones, and variable worm bones between cranial sutures are not counted. Similarly, the sacrum is usually counted as a single bone rather than five fused vertebrae. There are also a variable number of small sesame bones commonly found in tendons. The patella, or patella, on either side is an example of larger sesame bone.
The ball joints are counted in the sum because they are constant. The number of bones varies from individual to individual and with age – newborns have more than 270 bones, some of which fuse together. [ref. needed] These bones are organized in a longitudinal axis, the axial skeleton, to which the appendicular skeleton is attached.  The cytoskeleton (cyto- i.e. cell) is used to stabilize and maintain the shape of the cell. It is a dynamic structure that maintains cell shape, protects the cell, allows cell movement with structures such as flagella, cilia and lamellipods, and transport into cells such as the movement of vesicles and organelles, and plays a role in cell division. The cytoskeleton is not a skeleton in the sense that it provides the structural system of an animal`s body; On the contrary, it performs a similar function at the cellular level.  Bones are rigid organs that are part of the endoskeleton of vertebrates. They provide structural support to the body, support movement by counteracting muscle contraction and form a protective wall around internal organs.
Bones are mainly made up of inorganic minerals such as hydroxyapatite, while the rest consists of an organic matrix and water. The hollow tubular structure of the bones provides considerable compressive strength at low weight. Most bone cells are osteoblasts, osteoclasts or osteocytes.  The skeletons of turtles evolved to develop a shell from the rib cage that forms an exoskeleton.  The skeletons of snakes and caecilians have significantly more vertebrae than other animals. Snakes often have more than 300, compared to 65 typical of lizards.  After Vancouver 2010, there was a spark that ignited a nation. Thanks to the legacy of these Games, I joined the sport of skeleton. Being originally from Sherwood Park, Alberta, and having been able to leave the legacy of 1988 in my own province, I was able to train and compete to achieve my dream. The skeleton that forms the supporting structure inside the fish consists either of cartilage as in chondrichthyans, or of bone as in oriental ichthyans. The main skeletal element is the spine, which consists of light but strong mobile vertebrae. The ribs adhere to the spine and there are no limbs or belts of limbs.
They are supported only by the muscles. The main external features of fish, fins, consist of bony or soft spines called rays, which, with the exception of the caudal fin (caudal fin), have no direct connection with the spine. They are supported by the muscles that make up the main part of the trunk. Flexible skeletons are able to move; Thus, when tension is applied to the skeletal structure, it deforms and then returns to its original shape. This skeletal structure is used in some invertebrates, for example in the hinge of mussel shells or in the mesoglea of cnidarians such as jellyfish. Flexible skeletons are beneficial because only muscle contractions are needed to bend the skeleton; During muscle relaxation, the skeleton returns to its original shape. Cartilage is a material that can make up a flexible skeleton, but most flexible skeletons are made up of a mixture of proteins, polysaccharides and water.  For additional structure or protection, flexible skeletons can be supported by rigid skeletons. Organisms with a flexible skeleton usually live in water, which supports the structure of the body in the absence of a rigid skeleton.  When his team examined the fossilized embryos, they noticed egg-shaped halos around the skeletons.
The sport of skeleton and its name dates back to the late 1800s. The sled could get its name from the skeletal appearance of earlier versions. The skeletons of echinoderms, such as starfish and sea urchins, are endoskeletons made up of large, well-developed scleritis plates that border or overlap to cover the animal`s body. Sea cucumber skeletons are an exception because they have a reduced size for easy feeding and exercise. Echinoderm skeletons consist of stereoma, consisting of calcite with a monocrystalline structure. They also have a high magnesium content, forming up to 15% of the skeletal composition. The stereomatic structure is porous and the pores fill with connective tissue as the animal ages. Sea urchins have up to ten variants of stereo structure. Among recent animals, these skeletons are unique to echinoderms, although similar skeletons have been used by some Paleozoic animals.
 The skeletons of echinoderms are mesodermal because they are usually surrounded by soft tissue. The skeletal plates can be locked or connected by muscles and ligaments. Skeletal elements in echinoderms are highly specialized and take many forms, although they usually retain some form of symmetry. Sea urchin spines are the largest type of echinoderm skeletal structure.  Some molluscs, such as mussels, scallops and snails, have shells that serve as exoskeletons. They are produced by proteins and minerals secreted by the animal`s coat.  The identity of the skeleton remains the big question, and the answers may not be given anytime soon. A skeleton is the structural framework that supports an animal`s body. There are several types of skeletons, including the exoskeleton, which is the stable outer shell of an organism, the endoskeleton, which forms the supporting structure in the body, and the hydroskeleton, a flexible internal skeleton supported by fluid pressure. Vertebrates are animals with a backbone, and their skeletons are usually made of bone and cartilage. Invertebrates are animals that do not have a backbone.
Invertebrate skeletons vary, including hard exoskeleton shells, plated endoskeletons, or spicules. Cartilage is rigid connective tissue found in the skeletal systems of vertebrates and invertebrates. The truest Tyro in natural history would see this at first glance of the massive skeleton. Skeletons can be defined by multiple attributes. Strong skeletons are made up of hard substances such as bone, cartilage or cuticles. These can be subdivided by location; Internal skeletons are endoskeletons and external skeletons are exoskeletons. Skeletons can also be defined by rigidity, with flexible skeletons being more elastic than rigid skeletons.  Liquid or hydrostatic skeletons do not have a hard structure like solid skeletons, but operate on pressurized fluids.
Hydrostatic skeletons are always internal.  Invertebrates are defined by a lack of spine and do not have a bony skeleton. Arthropods have exoskeletons and echinoderms have endoskeletons. Some soft organisms, such as jellyfish and earthworms, have hydrostatic skeletons. In most vertebrates, the main component of the skeleton is bone.  Bones form a unique skeletal system for each species. Another important component is cartilage, which is found in mammals, especially in the joint region. In other animals, such as cartilaginous fish, including sharks, the skeleton consists entirely of cartilage. The segmental skeletal motif is present in all vertebrates, with repeated base units, as in the spine and rib cage.
  Endoskeletons are the internal support structure of an animal consisting of mineralized tissues, like the bone skeletons of most vertebrates.  Endoskeletons are highly specialized and vary greatly from animal to animal.  Their complexity varies from pure support (as in the case of sponges) to a site of muscle attachment and a mechanism of transmission of muscular forces. A real endoskeleton is obtained from mesodermal tissue. Endoskeletons occur in chordates, echinoderms and sponges. The skeletons of arthropods, including insects, crustaceans and arachnids, are cuticle exoskeletons. They consist of chitin, which is secreted by the epidermis.  The cuticle covers the animal`s body and lines several internal organs, including parts of the digestive system. Arthropods molt as they grow through a process of ecdysis, develop a new exoskeleton, digest part of the previous skeleton, leaving the rest behind. The skeleton of an arthropod performs many functions by acting as a integument to form a barrier and support the body, provide appendages for movement and defense, and aid sensory perception. Some arthropods, such as crustaceans, absorb biominerals such as calcium carbonate from the environment to strengthen cuticles.  An external skeleton can be quite heavy compared to the total mass of an animal, so on earth, organisms that have an exoskeleton are usually relatively small.
Slightly larger aquatic animals may carry an exoskeleton, as underwater weight is less taken into account.